how did water hyacinth get to south africa

Since then it has spread into many lakes and rivers of the southern US, making it one of the most troublesome aquatic plants in the country. Water hyacinth originated from Amazonia and spread naturally throughout South America. Later, an even shorter life-span hyacinth eater — the Argentine water hyacinth moth (Sameodes albiguttalis) with a lifespan of only 30 days — was established. Native to the tropics of South America, the water hyacinth now thrives on every continent except Europe. nutrients from water. Small amounts of Water Hyacinth can be removed Water hyacinth is a very aggressive invader and can form thick mats. It can be found between 38°N and 38°S and is referred to as a noxious weed in more than 50 countries on five continents (). fertilizer, sewage) entering water courses, as In 1972, the mottled water hyacinth (Neochetina eichhorniae), with a life span between 90-120 days, was deployed in Florida. an animal or plant which is introduced into a new area where it does not occur naturally plant to float, and the long feathery roots hang down into the water. Water Hyacinth threatens biodiversity by: changing the ecosystem so that it no longer suits indigenous plants Native Origin: South America (Germplasm Resources Information Network); NatureServe Explorer, Bugwood.org It is an aggressive invader especially in water Some people use Water Hyacinth as a source of fibre for making rope, Water Hyacinth is a floating perennial plant that is native to the Amazon and has spread to much of the southern united states. Two biological control agents have been introduced to control populations Water Hyacinth is a problem for people because: it blocks waterways and interferes with transport, irrigation, Molecular Ecology 19(9):1774-1786. The plant has since spread across the country and is found in water bodies in both sub-tropical and temperate areas. It grows in ponds, streams, and ditches. of Water Hyacinth. Water hyacinth is non-native to North America. In Africa, the first introduction of water hyacinth was in Egypt in about 1880 (Warnimont, 1965). Water hyacinth was first documented in South Africa in the early 1900s in the Cape Flats and has since spread countrywide as South Africa’s eutrophic (mineral & nutrient rich) water bodies and temperate climate make for the ideal environment for the aquatic weed to spread and thrive. The main areas where it occurs vary from low-lying, subtropical zones to high-elevation zones where frost is common in winter. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), an aquatic plant native to South America, first appeared in countries in Africa in the early 1900s. This plant appeared in Lake Kyoga in Uganda in the early 1980s and it also occurs in Lake Kwania and down the Kyoga Nile. Water Hyacinth is the principal aquatic weed in Africa. A number of different biocontrol species have been tested on water hyacinth here in the US. The Argentine water hyacinth moth, Sameodes albiguttalis, which retards growth in the early stages of water hyacinth mat development, was released and is now established in Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi, as well as in Australia, South Africa and Sudan. In the 1990s, the world reportedly spent US$3 billion a year just to control the weed, for the most part with little or no success. It is a floating water plant that grows about Ogwang: "...by integrating use of biocontrol agents in pest management, Planet Earth will remain a healthier environment with a relatively intact biodiversity for generations present and future...". America, where it grows in rivers and lakes in the Amazon basin. Water hyacinth originated in tropical South America, but is naturalized in warm areas of the world: Central America, California and southern states, Africa, India, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand, the latter where it is illegal so eat it fast. It was brought to South Africa as a decorative water plant because of its beautiful flowers. Reusing shower water, limiting toilet flushing and night-time irrigation were among measures that saved South Africa’s second city from running dry Krista Mahr Fri … Nearly two months after the department of water affairs and forestry (DWAF) contracted a helicopter to spray herbicide over the hyacinth … The Water Hyacinth is quite easily the most damaging water invader in South Africa. According to the University of Florida, water hyacinth was introduced from South America into the US in 1884. Genetic uniformity characterizes the invasive spread of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a clonal aquatic plant. It spread to the Congo, the Nile and Lake Victoria in … underwater plants cannot grow. and animals, forming thick mats that stop light getting into the water, so that baskets and paper, fodder for livestock, compost, and to remove excess Once growth is sufficient to cause crowding of individual plants, these petioles elongate and interweave, forming dense self-supporting mats that can cover the entire surfaces of dams and slow flowing rivers. Here, water hyacinth will be artificially grown in tanks and used to produce biogas for cooking and fertiliser to grow flowers. In South Africa, monetising the water hyacinth will be best carried out by either a cooperative of entrepreneurs or an NGO taking on the project, most likely rural based as lots of space will be required to dry the plant to get to commercial scale. Water hyacinth was first observed around Lake Victoria in 1989 and by the late 1990s was choking out most of the shoreline. well as to remove the invasive weeds. Image Credit: Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida Habitat: This native of South America is now considered a major weed species in more than 50 countries. The hanging roots of the plant feathery and purplish-black in color. What makes you most hopeful for the future? Water Hyacinth is the world’s worst invasive All have slender rootstocks, Removing Water hyacinth from a Cape town stream. fishing and recreation, it worsens flooding and can even cause bridges to collapse. 2010. Control depends on the specific conditions of each affected location such as the extent of water hyacinth infestation, regional climate, and proximity to human and wildlife. Many large hydropower schemes are suffering from the effects of water hyacinth. In North Africa water hyacinth causes serious … These species have now been used not only in other states like Louisiana and Mississippi but across the world including such countries as Australia, Fiji, Honduras, India, Malaysia, Papua, South Africa, Sudan and Thailand. By Jacques Breytenbach. Now, let us take a look at a pair of ten-year-old girls who live in two separate countries and circumstances in Africa. Only vaccines can eliminate virus, says NCDC. Water hyacinth is native to South America, but has naturalized much of the Southern U.S. Spread has been especially rapid during the last 10-15 years with exceedingly serious problems developing in the equatorial zone. Water hyacinth is a floating, flowering plant, native to South America. Estuaries 26(3):746-758. Lake Victoria, located in … Is it Invasive? removing oxygen from the water when the Water hyacinth is readily available ornamental plant for purchase that is typically put in ponds and outdoor water gardens in Ontario, where it is not a regulated species. The alternative supply of biogas from the water hyacinth could replace the unsustainable use of firewood for cooking, which is a particular problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aquatic plant water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was first recorded in South Africa during the early part of the 20th century. bodies with high levels of. Water hyacinth, any aquatic plant of the genus Eichhornia of the pickerelweed family (Pontederiaceae), consisting of about five species, native primarily to tropical America. It is currently covering more than 30% of the surface of the Hartbeespoort (Harties) Dam in South Africa’s North West Province. It does not tolerate brackish water, so is found in the upper It prefers warmer climates and has board, thick, and glossy leaves that are 10-20 cm across. It is a weed problem in many countries, especially in Egypt and East, West and South Africa. Water hyacinth was introduced in South Africa as an ornamental plant. The floating water-hyacinth was introduced into Florida in the 1880s and covered more than 120,000 acres of public lakes and navigable rivers by the early 1960s. In 1988 it … Now the plant has grown out of control causing havoc in South African water systems and killing marine plants. Zhang, Y., D. Zhang, and S.C. Barrett. Many methods have been tried to bring the weed under control, mostly with little rewards. First introduced into the Cape area in the early years of the 1900’s the plant has spread aggressively, choking waterways of nutrients and life forms wherever it grows. The effects of introduced water hyacinth on habitat structure, invertebrate assemblages, and fish diets. It forms dense mats in lakes, rivers and Water hyacinth mats clog waterways, making boating, fishing and almost all other water activities impossible. Water hyacinth was first recorded in South Africa on the Cape flats in the early 1900s and since then, has spread throughout the country. quickly and can flower within three or four months. It was introduced to the United States in 1884 at an exposition in New Orleans. plants die, sink to the bottom and rot; this causes fish and other the plants. animals to move away. Site and Date of Introduction: The Water Hyacinth was introduced from its native home in South America to various countries by well-meaning people as an ornamental plant; to the US in the 1880's. The leaf stalks have air sacs that enable the In 1974, a shorter life span weevil, the chevroned water hyacinth weevil (Neochetina bruchi) was released. Range Water hyacinth is native to the upper Amazon River basin in South America, but its distribution is now widespread around tropical and subtropical regions of the world. No one's sure how the South American water hyacinth invaded Africa's Lake Victoria but there's little doubt as to the damages it has caused. It was introduced in Egypt in about 1879. water plant because of its beautiful flowers. It was introduced as an ornamental species into the USA, South East Asia and South Africa in the late 19 th century and is now naturalized in most tropical and subtropical areas. The History of Water Hyacinth in Africa It was believed that water hyacinth was brought to Africa in the 1980’s, however research shows that the plant has been in the country since the mid-16th century, brought by European explorers. To control Water Hyacinth it is important both After its introduction to Africa and Asia, the water hyacinth mass-developed in many bodies of water and became a major obstacle to navigation and fishing. B ACKGROUND — Water hyacinth was first reported in Natal, South Africa, in 1910, and from there it has spread throughout South Africa. Water Hyacinth comes from tropical South Water hyacinth is an environmental menace and threat to biodiversity.” ... New rules for UK, South Africa travellers. Water hyacinth is the most invasive and rapidly proliferating aquatic weed in the world. 20 cm high and has beautiful lilac blue flowers with yellow markings. Water hyacinth is a problem in the US as well. disease-carrying mosquitoes can breed amongst water weed! Some species float in shallow water; others are rooted in muddy stream banks and lakeshores. AN Egyptian-funded initiative to remove water hyacinth on lakes Victoria and Kyoga is to be expanded to Rwanda and Burundi. parts of estuaries rather than near the estuary mouth. Abstract. wetlands. It was brought to South Africa as a decorative Water Hyacinth is a successful invader because: Once a seed germinates, the plant grows very Water Hyacinth Crisis on Hartebeespoort Harties Dam. by hand or by specially designed harvesting machines. to reduce nutrients (e.g. Water Hyacinth comes from tropical South America, where it grows in rivers and lakes in the Amazon basin. It was introduced in Africa around 1879, and 110 years later, established itself on the continent’s largest lake, Lake Victoria. South African water systems and killing marine plants it occurs vary from low-lying subtropical... Comes from tropical South America, where it grows in rivers and lakes in the Amazon basin it not. Out most of the Southern U.S the upper parts of estuaries rather than near the estuary.! 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